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Globally, acne is the most prevalent skin condition. In the US, about 3 million individuals are suffering from severe attacks of acne. Most of the time, acne starts to appear at the age of puberty.

Pathophysiology of acne vulgaris:

Acne is the cause of infection in a certain bacterium as propionic bacteria. This bacterium invades the hair follicles and makes them full of dead cells and oil.  The sebum and cells lead to breakouts, which result in acne, blackheads, whiteheads, and acne vulgaris.

Symptoms of acne vulgaris:

The most common symptoms of acne Vulgaris are:

These symptoms can vary according to the severity of the condition in an individual.

Most of the time, patients face a moderate type of acne attack.

In severe cases, acne pimples can cause acne scars, which can lead to emotional distress due to physical appearance.

Acne can equally affect individuals of all ages and genders, but its most common victims are teenagers.

Causes of acne:

The most common causes of acne are:

The most common sites of acne vulgaris are:

Most of the times, the acne occurs over the areas which contain sebaceous glands.

Risk factors of acne:

According to researches, the most common risk factors of acne are:

Hormonal disturbances:

Androgen and corticosteroids imbalance is the most common risk factor for acne. Abnormal amounts of corticosteroids, lithium, and androgens can occur among teenagers, which can lead to physical changes in them.


Teenagers are the most prone individuals to acne. But, acne can equally affect individuals belonging to each age group.


Genetics is one of the significant factors for acne. If both of your parents have suffered from acne, then there are probable chances that you will suffer from it too.

Stress and diet:

Stress can directly cause acne. But if you are suffering from acne, it can make the condition worse.

Diet has a significant role in the problem of acne. If you have too much of oily or greasy foods, it can cause more production of sebum leading to acne Vulgaris.


The primary treatment of acne is through hygiene. Make sure to exfoliate your skin for removing dead skin cells. If there are no dead skin cells, they cannot accumulate inside the hair follicles.

Different topical creams which contain active ingredients as retinoid can also treat the acne effectively.

Benzoyl peroxide can effectively treat mild episodes of the acne. This product is effective to inhibit the bacterial growth over the skin surface.

Salicylic acid can help to treat the abnormal shedding of skin cells. It can prevent skin lesions, unclog pores, and treat mild forms of acne.

In severe cases, your doctor prescribes you antibiotics and other medicines to treat your condition.